Residents in rebel-held areas of Syria's Aleppo cowered in their homes on Saturday as relentless missile strikes and barrel bomb attacks pounded the besieged eastern half of the divided city.
The raids by Russian and Syrian aircraft continued for a second night, after Damascus announced an operation late Thursday to recapture all of the city.
Heavy bombardment on Friday killed at least 47 people, among them seven children, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights monitor said.
The toll was expected to rise with the ongoing strikes levelling entire buildings, and obliterating whole streets.
"There are certainly deaths in the bombing (on Saturday) but we don't have tolls yet and people are still trapped under the rubble," said Observatory director Rami Abdel Rahman.